Description of the types of diabetes



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Serious, chronic disease that occurs either:

When the pancreas does not produce enough insulin

The body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces

Results in raised blood glucose

May lead to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves

More than 400 million people currently live with diabetes




Type 1 – Deficient insulin production in the body

Require daily administration of insulin to regulate the amount of glucose in the blood

Without it, they cannot survive

Cause not known

Not preventable

Symptoms excessive urination and thirst, constant hunger, weight loss, vision

changes and fatigue




Type 2 – Results from the bodys ineffective use of insulin

Accounts for the vast majority of people with diabetes globally

Symptoms may be similar to those of type 1 diabetes

Often less marked or absent

As a result, the disease may go undiagnosed for several years, until complications

have already arisen

Previously seen only in adults but now more prevalent in children.




Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycaemia

Intermediate conditions between normal blood glucose levels and diabetes (especially type 2)

Transition doesnt always occur

Those with the condition are at increased risk of heart attacks and strokes

Gestational Diabetes

Temporary condition that occurs in pregnancy

Carries long term risk of type 2 diabetes

At increased risk of some complications during pregnancy and delivery, including infants

Diagnosed through prenatal screening




Type 1 Unknown causes

Thought to result from a complex interaction between genes and environmental factors

No specific environmental risk factors shown to cause a significant number of cases

Primarily occurs in children and adolescents

Type 2 Caused by interplay of genetic and metabolic factors

Ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and previous gestational diabetes combined with older

age, overweight and obesity, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and smoking increase risk.

Overweight and obesity together with physical inactivity cause a large proportion of global

diabetes burden




Gestational diabetes

Age (the older a woman of reproductive age is, the higher her risk of GD)

Overweight or obesity

Excessive weight gain during pregnancy

Family history of diabetes

GD during a previous pregnancy

History of stillbirth or giving birth to an infant with congenital abnormality;

Excess glucose in urine during pregnancy




Can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves

two three-fold increased risk of heart attacks and strokes in adults

Increased chance for foot ulcers, infection and eventual need for limb


Diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness

2.6% of global blindness can be attributed to diabetes

Among the leading causes of kidney failure




Diabetes imposes a on the system

Direct annual cost to the world is more than US$ 827 billion

Expenditures for preventing and treating diabetes and its complications

Outpatient and emergency care; inpatient hospital care; medications and medical supplies; and long-term care

Impact on national economies

Estimated GDP losses worldwide from 2011 to 2030 – US$ 1.7 trillion

US$ 900 billion for high-income countries

US$ 800 billion for low- and middle-income countries




Diabetes currently affects over 425 million people worldwide

Up from 108 million in 1980

The global prevalence among adults has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014

Rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries

In 2016, an estimated 1.6 million deaths directly caused by diabetes

Seventh leading cause of death in 2016

Another 2.2 million deaths attributable to high blood glucose during 2012

Almost half of all deaths attributable to high blood glucose occur before the age of 70 years



Estimated prevalence and number of adults aged 18 years and older with diabetes

by WHO Region (2014)




Trends in diabetes prevalence, 1980 2014, by country income group




How can prevalence of diabetes be reduced?

Simple lifestyle measures

Prevents or delays type 2 diabetes onset

Achieve and maintain health body weight

Physically active

Healthy diet

Avoid tobacco use

Smoking increases the risk of diabetes




Provide scientific guidelines for the prevention diabetes

WHO “Global report on diabetes

WHO “Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health

Develop norms and standards for diabetes diagnosis and care for all countries

Build awareness on the global epidemic of diabetes, marking World Diabetes

Day (November 14th)

Conducts surveillance of diabetes and its risk factors




Incorporated in 1950

An umbrella organization of over 230 national diabetes associations in 170

countries and territories

Promote diabetes care, prevention and a cure worldwide

Instrumental in shaping the international agenda to reduce diabetes globally

Launched the Dubai Blueprint in 2011

Conceived as a practical tool for future action on diabetes for all sectors

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