CATS: If you look at data to help you determine truth, would you consider numbers or words to help you determine what is true?
REPLY 1-1 JS (150 words and 1 reference)
The scientific theory defines a hypothesis as the goal of proving an explanation of what might be true. Therefore, we can either guess the hypothesis by deductive reasoning which involves drawing conclusions based on general promises or by inductive reasoning in which the conclusion is based on a specific observation. Bradford and Weisberger (2022) explain that in deductive reasoning there is a premise, which can guarantee the veracity of the conclusion. For example, we all know that humanity is part of the animal kingdom, although thanks to its well-developed language, we may wonder if we can call ourselves “animals”. Whereas in the inductive reasoning mentioned by the authors, the conclusion is based on precise observations. Knowing that we have a higher intellectual capacity than other animal species does not prove that we can do the research ourselves, but we can therefore observe that the human species has a different development compared to other animals. What really differentiates the two reasonings from each other is that the hypothesis of deductive reasoning must be correct, which according to the authors the theory is specific to certain situations, while the inductive reasoning observation depends on the completeness of the observation, which means that the hypothesis does not need to be true since it must be investigated.
REPLY 1-2 RC (150 words and 1 reference)
Deductive reasoning is used when you create a mental idea to solve problems considered to be general knowledge and principles based on a solid foundation (Shin, 2019). After you have the general idea you get a conclusion based on the idea then try to find counter examples to prove it wrong. Inductive reasoning is used when starting with a very specific idea then after making observations and narrowing your options you are able to find a more specific conclusion. Induction is sort or working backwards to get your answer (Shin, 2019). Both can be used to generate hypothesis. Induction is a way of finding the hypothesis in a quicker manner due to being more specific on topics. Deduction is useful in another way by being able to work backwards removing wrong answers/ideas to get to the hypothesis.