Three Levels of Moral Development

Question 1

What ethical stance should managers adopt when in a foreign country whose laws and culture are different than what they are used to?

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A. Judge each case as it comes along.

B. Stick to the higher standards that are typical in their home country.

C. Always follow local practices and laws.

D. Follow their own personal code of ethics.

Question 2

What are the two stages within the first level (Preconventional level. of Kohlbergs Three Levels of Moral Development?

A. punishment and obedience orientation; instrumental and relative orientation

B. ; law and order orientation

C. social contract orientation; universal moral principles orientation

D. microsocial norm orientation; interpersonal concordance orientation

Question 3

Why did Dr. P. Roy Vagelos, Mercks head of research and development, decide to fund Ivermectin development to cure river blindness?

A. because of its large profit potential

B. because he decided it was the ethical choice

C. because it was both ethical and profitable

D. because governments would be interested in buying the drug

Question 4

Moral standards can be distinguished from what characteristics?

A. They deal with matters that can seriously injure or benefit humans.

B. They are not established or changed by authoritative bodies.

C. They are based on impartial considerations.

D. None of the above

E. All the above

Question 5

What is an example of a microsocial norm?

A. prohibition of murder

B. prohibition of alcohol

C. prohibition of torture

D. prohibition of stealing

Question 6

Which of the following ethical issues did NOT arise as a result of the Industrial Revolution?

A. worker exploitation in factories

B. environmental damage

C. manipulation of the new financial markets

D. customer privacy issues

Question 7

What are the three elements of moral responsibility?

A. causality, forethought, knowledge

B. causality, knowledge, malice

C. causality, knowledge, freedom

D. freedom, knowledge, malice

Question 8

Which of the following is one definition of the term ethics?

A. the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group

B. the process of adhering to all laws and regulations

C. an alternate term for morality

D. a term describing why people are good or evil

Question 9

When are our values formed?

A. during childhood, and they do not change after that

B. during adolescence

C. once we are adults

D. all throughout our lives as we mature

Question 10

How do we stimulate moral development in ourselves?

A. experience difficult ethical decisions ourselves

B. engage in interaction and discussion of moral issues with people around us

C. read about how others have dealt with ethical decisions

D. avoid ethically dubious situations

Question 11

The ISCT framework describes two kinds of moral standards: hypernorms and microsocial norms. What does ISCT stand for?

A. Implicit Social Cognitive Transition

B. Integrative Social Contracts Theory

C. International Social Consensus Theory

D. Integral Society Cognition Theory

Question 12

Which of the following are necessary for moral reasoning?

A. cognition

B. logic

C. emotions

D. all of the above

Question 13

What is stakeholder theory?

A. Corporate managers are obligated only to the shareholders, and no one else, because they own the corporation.

B. Corporate managers are obligated only to the customers, and no one else, because they are the lifeblood of the corporation.

C. Corporate managers should consider everyone, including outside interests, when making a decision.

D. Corporate managers should consider all groups or individuals who can affect the achievement of an organizations objectives.

Question 14

What happens during the Conventional Stages of Kohlbergs Three Levels of Moral Development?

A. Children can see moral rights and wrongs.

B. Children can apply the labels good, bad, right, and wrong.

C. Children satisfy their own needs through right actions.

D. The person tries to see right and wrong impartially.

Question 15

Why do many Ivory Coast cocoa farmers use young boys as slave labor?

A. It is the cheapest farming method, and the farmers are only interested in their huge profits.

B. There are no other people available to work the land in such remote areas due to civil war.

C. The farmers have no control over their selling prices due to middlemen, so some resort to child labor to cut costs.

D. The chocolate companies force them to use child labor.

Question 16

. What stance does your textbook take on globalization?

A. Globalization is beneficial.

B. Globalization is a mixed bag.

C. Globalization is harmful.

D. None of the above

Question 17

What does the Loyal Agent Argument state?

A. An employer would want to be served in whatever ways will advance his or her self-interests.

B. A customer expects to be served in whatever ways will ensure their loyalty to the company or brand.

C. An employee has a duty only to themselves as a loyal agent, and nobody else.

D. Companies will not waste time serving ethical needs because acting ethically does not advance their self-interests.

Question 18

According to Gilligans Theory of Female Moral Development, how do males typically tend to deal with moral issues?

A. in an emotionally biased manner

B. in a manner based on family and community norms

C. in terms of specific, personal moral principles

D. in terms of impersonal, abstract moral principles

Question 19

Carol Gilligan criticizes Kohlbergs theory on the basis of what?

A. Not all societies implicitly teach right and wrong.

B. His theory did not include people from other cultures.

C. His theory did not include different age groups.

D. His theory was based mostly on male subjects.

Question 20

In the Integrative Social Contracts Theory, what is the term for moral standards that should be applied to people in all societies?

A. social norms

B. microsocial norms

C. hypernorms

D. macrosocial norms

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